Please take a look at the live binders under Readings. The First one we will work from is 7.H.2.1.
Give your impression, supported by facts, about the impact of the 100 Years War. Each answer must be different. Your blog should be a maximum of 5 sentences.
The term Renaissance literally means rebirth. What was being reborn? Classical learning and values is what some people say but in actuality it was European society. The old Greek and Roman knowledge had worked its way back to Europe and had literally begun a knew age of knowledge. During the Renaissance exploration of the world occurred, the feudal system fell and absolute monarchies rose, commerce grew, and the invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing, the mariner's compass, and gunpowder.
How did the crusades impact Europe as a whole. Support your answer with facts from the reading. Only discuss one impact on society per post and your are required to respond to a classmate. If you cannot find something to discuss, then you can use the internet and cite where you received your facts. However, there is sufficient information in the reading to answer this question.
Quiz Grade: Virtual Class Discussion The Power of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages and Lecture
You are required to discuss the document below with your peers. Everyone is required to take part in the discussion. This is a virtual class lecture and discussion.
Respond to my post, correct what needs to be corrected and improve any correct assertions, and then respond to your classmates post. Your response MUST reference facts from the above reading to receive credit. No two posts can be the same, hence therein lies the challenge. You must correct my post in a professional and dignified manner. You posts should also educate your classmates on the subject.
Vikings, at their best, were great farmers. Their great success at farming was evidence by the frequent raids on surrounding peoples. Their raids helped spread the Viking Culture of literacy and Christianity across Europe. Vikings created great ships and were great navigators. Meanwhile, the Muslims in Spain have won victory after victory in France, defeating Charles Mantel at every turn. The Pope had to turn to the Byzantine Empire for protection.
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You must include: the name of your project, your partner (if any), the type of project, and if a website the web address. You must include all the information. Deadline is Monday.
"Though the Merovingian Franks started as a strong dynasty, the last of the Merovingian kings were so weak that their nickname changed for the long-haired kings to the sluggard, or do-nothing kings (rois fainéants). These kings were so lazy and weak that most of the work running the Frankish empire was placed on the shoulders of the Mayors of the Palace, administrators, who actually did all of the work, including leading Frankish armies in battle. Charles (the hammer) Martel was one of the most famous of these Mayors of the Palace. In AD 732, he led to Franks to a stunning victory over the invading army of the Moors at Tours, and forced them back into Spain. Christianity was saved in France and Martel became a legend.
While Charles Martel enjoyed his title of hammer, he never took the title of king, He was content being Mayor of the Palace. Martel's title was passed to his son, Pepin the Short. Unlike his father before him, Pepin was a Mayor of the Palace who believed that the one doing all of the work should be king. Pepin appealed to the Pope in Rome, who was the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope was a very powerful man, and the people would accept the Pope's decision. Pope Zachary at this time was being pressured by attacks in Italy by the Lombards, he needed a strong ally, so Pope Zachary agreed that Pepin should rule. Pepin had Childeric III, the last of the Merovingian kings, taken from his country home, his hair was cut, and Childeric was sent to a monastery. Pepin became the first Carolingian king, a dynasty named after Pepin's father Charles Martel.
One of Pepin's first actions was to do battle with the Lombards. He was successful in taking away large portions of their land in Italy, and, instead of adding this land to his Frankish empire, he gave this land to the Pope. This gift is known as the Donation of Pepin. Now the Pope had his own small empire in Italy known as the Papal States.
Pepin was a much better ruler than the Merovingian kings before him. Pepin died in battle in AD 768 at age 54, leaving his kingdom to his two sons Charles and Carloman. The two brothers did not get along, and Carloman, not wanting to risk his life, decided to go to a monastery, leaving the kingdom to Charles.
Charles was 26 when he came to the throne, he would be in almost constant battle for the next 46 years against Germanic enemies. The Carolingians came from a long line of bishops, religious leaders in the Roman Catholic Church, so Charles was loyal to the church. He defended the Pope in Rome when needed and had a famous campaign against the Saxons. Charles demanded that the pagan Saxons convert to Christianity, those who refused were beheaded, over 4,000 in one day. He cut the sacred oak trees of the Saxons and made lumber to build churches.
Back in Rome, some people felt that Pope Leo III should be removed. They attacked him in the streets of Rome. Leo survived and made his way to Charles' camp. Charles, with his Frankish army, brought Leo back to Rome and restored him as Pope. A year later on Christmas day 800, Charles was in Rome. He attended church with the Pope, and then Pope Leo III placed a crown on his head and declared Charles the Emperor of Rome. It had been over 300 years since there was an emperor in the west. Charles was now so powerful, he was given the title Charlemagne (Charles the Great).
Charlemagne ruled over a vast empire. He divided it into 52 counties, and appointed a count to run each county. Not taking any chances, Charlemagne had special agents called missi domenici, check up on these counts to make sure they were honest and did not abuse their power.
Charlemagne supported education. He brought a great scholar from England, named Alcuin of York, to his capital at Aachen. He hoped that all of his subjects could learn to read and write. He even hoped one day to learn himself.
Charlemagne had a large family. He had four wives and 18 children. Although he was away in battle often, Charlemagne was a good father. He never wanted his daughters to marry for fear they would live too far away from him. He even broke off an engagement between his daughter, Rotrud, and the young emperor of Constantinople.
Charlemagne enjoyed physical activities like swimming and horseback riding. He was 6'4" a giant for his time. He loved music and hoped to learn to write so badly, he even went to sleep with a pen by his side and paper under his pillow, is case the skill came to him in the middle of the night. Charlemagne brought back a degree of civilization to Western Europe not seen since the days of ancient Rome. Charlemagne died in AD 814, leaving avast empire that spanned from modern France to Poland.
The Carolingian Empire weakened after the death of Charlemagne. The empire was divided into three parts, ruled by Charlemagne's grandsons. The middle of the three kingdoms was weak, and was absorbed by the eastern and western kingdoms. These two kingdoms would emerge as the modern countries of France and Germany."
Make sure to use the transcript below the video to take better notes.
The Roman Empire covered a vast area, and when it fell, its people were in danger of losing their civilization. This lesson explores some of the things that remained as the Empire fell, as well as how they affected Roman citizens.
ConstantinopleAt its height in the early second century AD, the Roman Empire was powerful and expanded into vast areas. However, it weakened and began to fall apart in the West after the invasion of Germanic tribes like the Goths, Vandals, Franks and Anglo-Saxons in the fifth century. In the eastern part of the Empire, though, a new culture developed in Constantinople, a large, important city in the Roman Empire. The society in this area included influences from both Romans and Greeks. It also included influences from the dominant Christian religion.
A disagreement over the display of religious images and clergy rights led to a split of the church. As Christianity spread, many people in this area developed disagreements with the church. Some of these disagreements were over the display of religious images (resulting in iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious images) and clergy members' rights. Eventually, the church split into two major divisions: Western Roman Catholicism and Eastern Greek Orthodox. In addition to this split, a preference for language further separated the eastern and western parts of the Empire. In the East, Greek was preferred, but in the West, Latin was dominant.
Byzantine emperors were rulers who succeeded Roman emperors and claimed to rule the entirety of the Roman Empire from the East. One of the most well-known Byzantine emperors was named Justinian. Justinian's major accomplishment in Roman history was to codify Roman law. Justinian made Roman law official throughout the Roman Empire, and it eventually spread into Western Europe as well. The text in which the Roman laws were written was called Corpus Juris Civilis, or 'Body of Civil Law.' Justinian also fought to gain control over lands that had been conquered by Germanic tribes like the ones mentioned earlier.
After Justinian, Constantinople faced perpetual invasions. The first threat came from the Persian Empire. Soon the Muslims joined in the assault. The Byzantines held strong, but eventually fell to Ottoman Turk invaders around 1453. However, the Byzantine Empire had a lasting impact in several areas. Byzantines codified Roman law, prevented Muslims from invading further into Europe and also preserved the knowledge of ancient Greek philosophers and scientists that would become popular again during the European Renaissance.
Catholicism EnduresWestern Europe underwent a change in economy and politics as the Roman Empire declined. As Germanic peoples expanded in power, urban areas and systems of government declined and stratified. As people spread out into more rural areas, commercialism also underwent a decline. One of the only unifying factors left for peoples formerly of the Roman Empire was religion. Catholicism had spread and remained dominant over much of the Empire's lifespan. In those times of uncertainty, people were searching for something to provide continuity and authority. Although people no longer belonged to the Roman Empire, they could still belong to the Catholic Church.
Of course, Europe was not without its conflicts. But, when Germanic tribes invaded the Roman Empire with force, they were met with a new culture. Some tribes assimilated into this culture by adopting many of the practices they saw. For instance, after a victory in battle, a Frankish king named Clovis converted from paganism to Christianity, and his fellow tribesmen followed suit.
As already mentioned, Eastern and Western Christians disagreed on several tenets of their religion. Regardless of the tension, responsibility to care for the people of the Christian nation fell on the pope. Left without a centralized government, the people of the Empire allowed the church to take over basic administrative functions. In addition to seeing to the basic needs of the people, the papacy also took responsibility for managing foreign political affairs. Without the papacy stepping in to take control of the Empire, civilization may have crumbled.
As the Church took on greater governmental responsibility, the power of the pope grew immensely.
Although the authority of the church was a welcome occurrence at the time, eventually the pope's power would grow to immense proportions. A resurgence of classical learning, including the ancient texts preserved by the Byzantines, during the Renaissance would inspire free-thinking. People would soon begin to break away from the Catholic Church entirely and form their own religious ideals. This would eventually lead to the Protestant Reformation.
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