We also studied the role that irrigation played in the development of a civilization. There are many types of irrigation. The type of irrigation is directly related to the geography of the civilization. Flat areas near water sources normally use canals, mountainous areas employ aqueducts or terrace farming techniques. To assist with the movement during dry times ancient civilizations developed methods of moving water from canals with low water levels. The Egyptian Shaduf and the Chinese Waterwheel are examples. The way theses civilizations irrigated their crops was by making a hole in the bank of the irrigation ditch and allowing the water to flood the fields. In Mesopotamia, this lead to salinization which would eventually destroy farmland.
Ancient civilizations also applied technology to farming. Inventions such as the heavy plow, the harness, crop rotation, the three tier system of farming, and fertilizer all served to increase the amount of food produced. This technology meant fewer people were needed on the farm which meant they were able to pursue other economic activities usually within a city. With the increase of food came the beginnings of civilization.